• Title: Set Brackets

• YouTube-Title: Advent of Mathematical Symbols - Part 11 - Set Brackets

• Bright video: https://youtu.be/ZxnJkGFJB48

• Dark video: https://youtu.be/FTzO3m1uzT0

• Timestamps
• Subtitle in English

1 00:00:00,700 –> 00:00:03,821 The mathematical symbol of today is the set bracket.

2 00:00:04,021 –> 00:00:06,849 Which we use in mathematics to construct new sets.

3 00:00:07,614 –> 00:00:13,564 For example you often see something like this, that after the set bracket we have a function f(x).

4 00:00:14,571 –> 00:00:18,232 and then on the right you see a vertical line or a colon.

5 00:00:18,571 –> 00:00:24,286 Moreover next to it you find something like: x is an element in a set “A”.

6 00:00:25,286 –> 00:00:30,526 Of course there could be more conditions than this, but in the end we have a closing set bracket.

7 00:00:31,900 –> 00:00:40,763 Now the meaning of this is that we apply the function f to all elements x from the set “A” and then we form a new set.

8 00:00:41,614 –> 00:00:45,741 and the elements of the new set are exactly these values.

9 00:00:46,386 –> 00:00:52,445 So you could read it as the set of the elements f(x), where x comes from “A”.

10 00:00:53,114 –> 00:00:56,742 Indeed this is a construction you see very often in mathematics.

11 00:00:57,186 –> 00:01:00,425 Therefore it might be helpful to look immediately at an example.

12 00:01:01,243 –> 00:01:07,606 So lets look at a set of the elements where the function f is given by (2 times x + 1).

13 00:01:08,729 –> 00:01:14,335 and here x should come from the set {0, 1, 2, 3}.

14 00:01:14,886 –> 00:01:20,331 So you see we construct a new set using this set here and that function.

15 00:01:21,314 –> 00:01:26,931 and now you should see the values that come out are just the first 4 odd numbers.

16 00:01:28,057 –> 00:01:30,822 Hence 1, 3, 5, 7.

17 00:01:31,800 –> 00:01:35,671 For example 7 we get when we apply this 3 here.

18 00:01:36,700 –> 00:01:43,610 So you see this construction is not so complicated, but it occurs very often. Therefore you should know what it means.

19 00:01:44,600 –> 00:01:51,047 As a fun fact i can tell you this set construction is also included in the programming language Python.

20 00:01:52,229 –> 00:01:59,077 So you can use the curly brackets { and type “2 times x + 1 for

21 00:02:00,386 –> 00:02:03,408 So you can see the “for” as the vertical line.

22 00:02:04,329 –> 00:02:11,900 and then we just type “x in the set {0, 1, 2, 3} curly brackets.

23 00:02:11,957 –> 00:02:12,786 curly brackets

24 00:02:13,643 –> 00:02:16,729 Ok now i hit enter and you see the result.

25 00:02:17,957 –> 00:02:22,461 So not so surprising we get the same odd numbers, we calculated before.

26 00:02:23,443 –> 00:02:27,540 Ok i hope that this was helpful and that i see you in the next video.

27 00:02:27,740 –> 00:02:28,514 Bye!

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